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Everything You Need To Know About Robotics in Education and Businesses

A Mass-Produced Sociable Humanoid Robot: Pepper: The First Machine of Its Kind

By Amit Kumar Pandey and Rodolphe Gelin 


As robotics technology evolves, we believe that personal social robots will be one of the next big expansions in the robotics sector. Based on the accelerated advances in this multidisciplinary domain and the growing

number of use cases, we can posit that robots will play key roles in everyday life and will soon coexist with us, leading all people to a smarter, safer, healthier, and happier existence.

The Pepper robot, developed by SoftBank Robotics, is one such robot created with the goal of achieving this vision. This article aims to present the insights derived from the design and applications of this machine and illustrate some of the use cases and research projects involving SoftBank Robotics to better understand the companion relationship between human and robot achievable through Pepper. We conclude by outlining some of the grand challenges ahead for research and development (R&D).

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Robot-based Intervention Program for Autistic Children with Humanoid Robot NAO: Initial Response in Stereotyped Behavior

 

Luthffi Idzhar Ismail a, *, Syamimi Shamsudina,b, Hanafiah Yussofa, Fazah Akhtar Hanapiahc and Nur Ismarrubie Zaharid

aCenter Of Excellence for Humanoid Robots & Bio-sensing (HuRoBs), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

b Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia.

cFaculty of Medicine,Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam, 40000, Malaysia

dDepartment of Mechanical and Manufacturing, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia

* Corresponding author. Luthffi Idzhar Ismail Tel: +60 3 5543 5161 ; fax: +60 3 5543 5160.                            E-mail address: Luthffi@yahoo.com

Keywords: Rehabilitation Robotics, Human-Robot Interaction, Humanoid Robot NAO, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Robot-based Intervention Program

1. Introduction

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a brain developmental disorder that affects the growth of social and communication skills of an individual [1]. Number of children that suffered from Autism Spectrum Disorder is increasing. The disorder is noticeable by social functioning that is characterized by impairment in the use of nonverbal behaviors, failure to develop proper peer relationships and lack of social and emotional connections [2]. Autism is a complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first three years of life and is a result of a neurological disorder that affects the normal operation of the brain, impacting development in the areas of social interaction and communication skills. Many researches and practitioner have developed interventions to teach play activities to children with autism served through early intervention [3]. New generation of therapy involving HRI and robotics elements is believe to produce a good improvement of behavior to the ASD children.

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Sensor Based Mobile Navigation Using Humanoid Robot Nao

 Ilmi Mohd Ariffina,b*, Ahmad Ismat Hakam Mohamed Rasidia, Hanafiah Yussofa, Zulkifli Mohameda, Mohd Azfar Miskama, Adam Tan Mohd Amina, Abdul Rahman Omara

 

,aCenter for Humanoid Robots and Bio-sensing (HuRoBs), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

bDepartment of Electrical Engineering, Politeknik Sultan Idris Shah, Sg.Lang, 45100 Sungai Air Tawar, Selangor.Malaysia

                                              * Corresponding author. Tel.: +60 - 129776876                                     E-mail address: ilmi_ariffin@psis.edu.my

Abstract: This project presents a new approach of humanoid-operated 4-wheeled mobile platform. The robot used in this work is Nao by Aldebaran Robotics. Nao is chosen because of its versatility. Its wide range of movements allows it to perform various tasks such as steering through a simple programming algorithm. Arduino microcontroller target board is used to provide the interface between Nao robot and the mobile platform whilst humanoid robot NAO act as the main processing unit for the whole system. This project consists of several parts.

This paper focuses in the development of a sensing system, integration of Arduino microcontroller pro navigation with obstacle avoidance. Several tests has been done to determine the best initial setting to the overall system. The implementation of sensing system in the mobile platform shows very good result as the platform able to avoid obstacles while navigating.

Keywords: Navigation; Infrared sensor; Humanoid; Mobile Platform;

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Humanoid Robot NAO Interacting with Autistic Children of Moderately Impaired Intelligence to Augment Communication Skills

Syamimi Shamsuddina, b*, Hanafiah Yussofb, Luthffi Idzhar Ismailb, Salina Mohamedc,

Fazah Akhtar Hanapiahc and Nur Ismarrubie Zaharid

aFaculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia.

bCOE for Humanoid Robots & Bio-sensing (HuRoBs), Fac. of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam, 40450, Malaysia

cFaculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam, 40450, Malaysia

dDepartment of Mechanical and Manufacturing, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia

* Corresponding author. Syamimi Shamsuddin Tel.: +60 3 5543 5161 ; fax: +60 3 5543 5160. E-mail address: syamimi@ieee.org

Abstract: This report presents the findings from our pilot study on the initial behavior of autistic children of moderately impaired intelligence when exposed to simple human-robot interaction (HRI) modules executed by a humanoid robot NAO. All 5 children have been specifically assessed using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and their diagnosis is classified as autistic disorder. We hypothesize that NAO’s human-like appearance, its capability to blink its eyes, speak and play music; coupled with the simplicity of the HRI modules will be able to entice the children’s interest to engage in communication. Hence, this would significantly reduce the children’s autistic characteristics in communication behavior compared to the usual class setting.

In this study, the principal result shows that 4 out of the 5 children exhibited a decrease of autistic behavior (in communication sub-scale) when the robot is executing HRI modules during the single session of child-robot interaction. This promising outcome indicates that the NAO robot were able to attract the children’s attention, keep each child engaged with the robot during interaction and hence give positive impact to the children’s communication behavior. Relating this to the children’s FSIQ, it can be deducted that autistic children with FSIQ of moderately impaired (from 40-54) are receptive to robot- based intervention. This is again showed by the lower autistic traits observed during the HRI modules compared to in-class setting.

Overall, this research suggests that autistic children of moderately impaired intelligence show good response to robot-based intervention. This finding is crucial to form a solid foundation and proof on the positive utilization of the humanoid robot NAO for the children affected by autism.

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Initial Response in HRI- a Case Study on Evaluation of Child with Autism Spectrum Disorders Interacting with a Humanoid Robot NAO

 Syamimi Shamsuddina, b*, Hanafiah Yussofb, Luthffi Idzhar Ismailb, Salina Mohamedc,   Fazah Akhtar Hanapiahc and Nur Ismarrubie Zaharid

aFaculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia. 

bCOE for Humanoid Robots & Bio-sensing (HuRoBs), Fac. of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam, 40450, Malaysia

cFaculty of Medicine,Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam, 40450, Malaysia

dDepartment of Mechanical and Manufacturing, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia

* Corresponding author. Syamimi Shamsuddin Tel.: +60 3 5543 5161 ; fax: +60 3 5543 5160.          E-mail address: syamimi@ieee.org

 

Abstract: The evolution of human-robot interaction (HRI) is now expanding its wings to aid children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in areas of socialization, communication and playful behavior through robot-based intervention. Herein we present our holistic, long- standing goal to contribute to the lives of children with ASD; who suffer a lifelong developmental disability. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on a case study in our pilot experiment where a child with ASD is exposed to the humanoid robot NAO in order to gauge his initial response and behavior in the presence of a robot. NAO robot is the chosen robotic agent as it is a commercially available humanoid with simpler in appearance compared to real humans, thus appears more approachable to children with ASD.

The pilot procedures involve the robot executing basic, simple components of interaction through a series of 5 different modules. In this study, the principal results show that the basic HRI carried out by the robot is able to suppress the child’s autistic behavior during the child-robot interaction. Also, more eye contact is observed between the child and robot compared to the child with his teacher during regular class session.

Relating this to the child’s IQ which falls in the moderate category, it is suggested that children with ASD in the same IQ group will be receptive to robot-based intervention even in the first interaction session. Hence, it can be concluded that the humanoid robot NAO has potential to serve as a platform to support and initiate interaction in children with ASD.

Keywords: human-robot interaction (HRI); Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD); humanoid robot NAO; rehabilitation robotics

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An Open Loop Walking on Different Slopes for NAO Humanoid Robot

Amir Massah B.a, Arman Sharifi K.a,b, Yaser Salehiniaa, Farid Najafia*

*Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N.Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran *School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

                                             *Corresponding author. Tel.: +989352573394;                                              E-mail address: amir.massah@gmail.com

Abstract: Dynamic gait planning for humanoid robots encounters difficulties such as stability, speed, and smoothness. In most of previous studies, joints’ trajectories are calculated in 3D Cartesian space, then, introducing boundary conditions and using polynomials, the first and second derivatives of the motion are ensured to be continuous.

Then, the stability of the motion is guaranteed using Zero Moment Point (ZMP) stability criterion. In this study, a trajectory planner is presented using the semi-ellipse equations of the motion; the continuity of the derivatives is preserved. Stabilization of motion is attained through using ZMP criterion and 3d inverted pendulum equations in three slope conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is investigated using Webots software.

Implementing proposed approach, smoothness, stability, and convenient speed (rather than 17 cm/s in flat condition) are achieved.

Keywords: Trajectory Planning, Humanoid Robot, ZMP, NAO;

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Implementation of an External Laser Scanner into Control System of the NAO Robot

Arkadiusz Gardecki Michal Podpora Aleksandra Kawala-Janik

Opole University of Technology – Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control and Informatics  UL.Proszkowska 76, 45-758 Opole, Poland (e-mail: a.gardecki@po.opole.pl, m.podpora@po.opole.pl, kawala84@gmail.com).

Abstract: The paper describes an algorithm for supporting the control of the humanoid robot NAO, using an external system, equipped with a laser scanner. The use of an external 2D laser scanner clearly increases the reliability of robot movements in a closed area. The proposed algorithm is implemented and tested in an external system that supervises the navigation  of the NAO robot. It combines information from built-in robot sensors with the additional computational capabilities of an external control system, as well as the laser scanner data. The proposed system enables the possibility of fast and convenient localisation and navigation of one or more robots in a close environment.

© 2018, IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Control) Hosting by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 

Keywords: collision avoidance, humanoid robots, laser radar, robot control.

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